Disclaimer: The below information contains many generalisations
and may not apply to any particular cult.
Techniques of mind control:
Mind control is a suite of practices a group uses to manipulate and
control its members. Mind control is not the same as brainwashing.
There is no torture involved with mind control, and since those implementing
the techniques are not at all perceived as the enemy – whereas a torturer
is clearly an enemy – a person is likely to set up no defences against
the techniques. Instead, the cult leadership is seen as doing what is
best for the member, even if it's punishment. Thus, mind control doesn't
force someone to do anything against their will. People want
to comply with the coercion. Because of this, individuals under the
influence of mind control are responsible for their own actions.
Only a few cults will strongly exhibit all the following mind control
techniques, but all sociological cults will exhibit most of them. Often
the mind control mechanisms are used together to form even stronger
controls over members.
Also note that it's not uncommon to see one or more of these occasionally
shown by a good Christian church. No church is perfect, but in such
a case it is the exception rather than the rule and if particularly
strong it is a problem that should be addressed.
Deception | Exclusivism
| Fear, Guilt, Intimidation | Information Control
| Loaded Language | Love Bombing
| Personality Replacement | Relationship Control
| Reporting Structure | Shunning
| Thought Stopping | Time Control
- Deception. Cults do not tell potential members what they actually
believe, and only reveal their true doctrine to members gradually, as
the member is able to accept it. Cults and cult members will lie to
hide their true beliefs. Remember: If something is true it can stand
being questioned, if it is not true it needs to be questioned. Deception
has no place in the Christian church.
- Exclusivism. Cults teach that only
they have the truth and the correct path to salvation. (Note: Christianity
really is the only way to God [John 14:6] but no good Christian church
claims that all other Christian churches are "of the devil"
or "fallen".) Leaving the cult is equated with leaving God,
and members really believe that leaving the cult means they can never
- Fear, Guilt and Intimidation. Leadership is feared, and disagreeing
with the leadership (or even just questioning it) is akin to disagreeing
with God. Breaking sessions are used to destroy resistance, where members
have their motives and character attacked until they fall into line
again. Some cults keep "sin lists" which are used in these
sessions. Even in day to day interactions outside of breaking sessions
the leadership can use sin lists and similar knowledge to intimidate
- Information Control. Members are not allowed to read or watch
any material not published by the cult. This includes newspapers, TV,
radio, and even the Bible outside of the cult's own Bible studies.
- Loaded Language. The cult uses
its own language and terms, with common words having quite different
meanings to the members. (For example, the Holy Spirit to a JW
is a force like electricity; the Trinity to a Mormon is three separate gods.) Attempts by non-members to reason with
cult members is reinterpreted since cult members are taught to expect
opposition, such as their group being called a cult, or claims that
it is harmful, etc. (Closely related to thought stopping – see
- Love Bombing and Conditional Love.
New members are almost smothered in love, acceptance, etc – a process
known as love bombing. The new member has instant friends and all emotional
needs are met. This normally lasts a few months – a honeymoon peried
– and then love and acceptance is turned on and off to control.
- Personality Replacement. Close friends or family (where they
are allowed access to the member) notice the member's personality changes
from what they were like before joining the group. The cult does this
by first breaking down a new member's resistance to the cult's real
doctrine (not the public doctrine they were told when they joined).
This may be through love bombing or by intimidatory breaking sessions
(see Fear, Guilt and Intimidation). The member is then indoctrinated
with the cult's new doctrine. Many cults use several "Bible"
studies a week to do this, resulting in cult members appearing to know
their Bible better than many Christians – unfortunately with the cult's
theology underlying their knowledge. It can take years to eliminate
all this false doctrine. While this indoctrination is happening the
member is adopting the accepted cult personality, which may be markedly
different to the personality they had beforehand. For example, International
Churches of Christ members' personalities are enthusiastic, outgoing,
- Relationship Control. Reduces the
time spent on relationships with people outside the cult or those who
would tend to draw the member away from the cult. Members are often
moved into cult-based flats or even employed in cult-owned businesses
(which may have separate lunch rooms for members and non-members). Members
are told who they are to date and marry. This means that after being
in a cult for a few years, members have no friends or family outside
the cult – it can make leaving a very bleak prospect.
- Reporting Structure. Any indiscretions, however minor, are
reported back to the cult leadership, with members being encouraged
to report "struggling brothers." This can result in "Voice
of God" sermons, where the leader preaches a sermon directly aimed
at what a particular member is currently struggling with – and has talked
about in confidence with someone else. When the member hears it they
think that God is speaking directly through the preacher to them.
- Shunning (a part of relationship control).
Members are banned from talking to or associating with former members.
In other words, former members are "shunned" (completely ignored)
by present members, even to the point where members will cross the street
to avoid former members. The fear of being shunned helps keep present
members within the group.
- Thought Stopping. Members are trained (normally over years)
to have thoughts stopped or reasoning processes interrupted when they
hear a certain phrase or even a word. For example, when a cult member
is talking with a non-member about what Jesus did on the cross, they
make progress until the latter mentions that the member's group is a
cult. The member thinks "Aha! We were warned about this!"
and immediately starts to reinterpret everything he/she hears according
to the cult teachings (see loaded language above). Reasoning
processes are instantly affected and strong resistance to rational thought
is triggered in the member. For some, thought stopping might involve
chanting to block out "sinful" thoughts.
- Time Control. Keeps the member so busy with cult activities
they have no time to think deeply about their involvement or pursue
activities that might lead them away from the cult. The member might
have cult meetings or Bible studies several nights a week.
For more information on mind control read the Cult
Mind Control pamphlet (PDF 98KB) or Cultwatch's How
Cults Work (long page, lots of scrolling),
or read Guy Steward's book Mind Control: Choosing Between Truth & Deception.
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